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Археология институтының журналы. А.Х.Марғұлан




Turkestan archaeological expedition of the Institute of Archaeology after A.Margulan completed the next phase of the research of the most ancient layers of the ancient citadel of Turkestan.


Excavations in the vicinity of the mausoleum of Haji Ahmed Yasavi already marked by the discovery of the architectural complex of the ancient citadel, whose buildings turned out surprisingly well preserved. At the site of the hill Kultobe, literally 300 meters to the south of the mausoleum, now the towering walls height up to 4 m, with arches of  doorways, remains of arches over long rooms.

According to experts, the most ancient core of the city was built in a cruciform plan of building  with slit loopholes in the walls of the lower floors.. The original building had also the top floor, from which, however , remained only faint traces . But  survived massive walls of more than three and a half meters high are impressive . As the head of the research Smagulov says  there are three or four similar in layout of the building of varying degrees of investigation. They are located in Zhambyl and South Kazakhstan regions and belong to the first centuries of our era. According to the archaeologist , this is the most ancient monuments of civil architecture in Kazakhstan, They can be associated with the culture of the ancient state of Kangju . It is possible that these are the first typical " Kangui " monuments, and their origins and distribution are connected with  the southern regions of Kazakhstan. Saxon state Kangju, mention of which were deposited in the myths and epics of many ancient peoples of Eurasia, stretched once their power over both the ancient steppes of Kazakhstan and the Central Asian oases over until the Amu Darya

At the next stage to this cross-shaped building was attached a square building with a courtyard and a semi-circular towers in the center of the outer walls. The study of details of its layout and the nature of cultural layers was busy international team of archaeologists in the current season. The result is still small, but impressive set of findings (beads and other jewelry, tips of iron arrows, alabaster idols, household ceramics), which indicates that it is a square building with a courtyard built, most likely in the I-II centuries. n. e. This means that an earlier, cross-shaped, built at least in the first centuries BC!

Naturally, during the excavation are examined all stages of the evolution of the monument, including later ones. They give more interesting information. Last season in the wall of layer IX-X centuries .were found "sacrificial" pots . On one of them during of making of wet clay was applicated runic inscription. On the conclusion of Professor of Moscow State University specialist turkologist Igor Kyzlasov, the inscription refers to is not readable " achktashskoy " runic writing , can be dated to the IX century.

This season, the archaeologists were able to establish that the sacrificial offerings of food in pots were set into the walls of the large room of the cult. It differs from normal household buildings for its size and features of the interior layout. As it cleared the room and as adjacent buildings adjacent to the remains of the ramparts of the ancient citadel of Turkestan.

What do digs of the earliest layers of Turkestan give? Smagulov focuses on what the ancient monuments has been revealed are located virtually in the most visited museum "Azret Sultan", 300 m from the famous mausoleum of the ashes "of the Apostle truth "Haji Ahmed Yasawi. Subject to the implementation of measures to museification and conservation of the monument and, along with large-scale autopsy oldest layers, the whole complex of ancient buildings of the citadel can be worthy of a museum object, showing the history of the city of Turkestan, with its shrine - the tomb of Haji Ahmed Yasawi. The current stage of the study of ancient periods of Turkestan opens on real architectural and archaeological sites, and the initial stages of a phase in the development of urban life in the region.

Unfortunately, there is up to now actual conversations on this topic , or have a completely abstract or appeal to the burial relics - mounds and mausoleums , - believes the Smagulov . - The region has practically no museum ancient relics of urban culture. No, not because of sedentary forms of urban life was not on the ground in Kazakhstan. By the way, this is partly fueled by the myth of Kazakhstan as a country of eternal nomadism . The reason that these monuments are not examined, and if tested , it is not stored. Our data show that even at the turn of the eras here. High-rise buildings were built of complex layout in the ancient Turkestan, Now there is reason to believe that in the first centuries BC over settlements within the powerful walls, equipped with towers, arches and domes towered places of worship.

 Excavations show that within clay walls ran mazes of shady streets, with the cool corridors and archways, courtyards and arranged religious sanctuary as centers of spiritual life. Try to see for example, in the ancient cities - Taraz or Shymkent - even a simple piece of the wall of an ordinary house  or at least a brick of more than twenty century’s antiquity!  Or see the house of a dweller who lived in Almaty a thousand years ago! In Turkestan, it is possible to walk under the arches and vaults, which are more than 16 centuries to touch the walls and sit on the sufah by the hearth of houses, built nearly 20 centuries ago. Complexes of things  are assembled on their floors  that had been spread all around Eurasia  in the first centuries AD.

 I asked the master of home archeology about the age of Turkestan, it is known to be as1500 years. Smagulov explained that the scientific archaeological study of ancient cities has no anything commonwith the dates of their occurrence. Strictly speaking, these dates does not exist in history, the descendants, our contemporaries agree about.  The historic  “appearance”  of the city - a long-term and complex process . In respect to the eastern cities and has not produced the generally accepted criteria for determining the settlement “Is it the city or still village”?  In any case,received new data indicated that there was a powerful fortress already more than 15 centuries ago in the city of Turkestan, erected architectural complexes.

So it with all the weighty cogency demonstrate real thick walls and architectural forms, which at that time only could have been expected only among the oldest urban cultures of Asia. A new stage of archaeological research stimulated in its time by the state program "Cultural Heritage", led to a revision of many outdated ideas about our past .


Lyubov Dobrota

Yuzhno-Kazakhstanskaya Pravda

Material was taken from site


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